A deep well pump, also known as a submersible pump, is a specialized device designed to bring water from underground sources, such as wells or boreholes, to the surface. It operates on the principle of displacement and uses a combination of mechanical and hydraulic components to efficiently lift water from considerable depths. Here's how a deep well pump works:
A deep well pump is designed to be submerged underwater, often at the bottom of the well. This design allows the pump to be in direct contact with the water source, eliminating the need for priming and providing more efficient water extraction.
Motor and Impeller:
The pump consists of an electric motor, which is sealed to prevent water from entering, and an impeller. The impeller is a rotating component with curved blades that resembles a propeller. The impeller is connected to the motor shaft and is responsible for creating pressure and moving water.
When the motor is turned on, the impeller starts spinning rapidly. As it rotates, it generates centrifugal force, pushing water toward the outer edges of the impeller blades. This creates a low-pressure region at the center of the impeller.
Water from the surrounding environment, in this case, the well or borehole, is drawn into the low-pressure area at the center of the impeller. This creates a suction effect that pulls water into the pump assembly.
As water is drawn into the impeller, it is forced outward by centrifugal force, gaining velocity and kinetic energy. This energy causes an increase in pressure within the pump casing.
Diffuser and Casing:
The pump casing is designed to house the impeller and create a channel for the water to flow through. The casing often includes a diffuser, a component that converts the kinetic energy of the high-speed water into pressure energy. The diffuser gradually slows down the water and directs it towards the pump's discharge outlet.
Rising to the Surface:
The pressurized water exits the pump casing through the discharge outlet, typically a pipe that leads to the surface. As the water travels upward through this pipe, it encounters less resistance due to the pressurization and the suction effect at the pump's inlet.
The water travels through the pipe, ultimately reaching the surface or a holding tank. At this point, the water is available for various uses, such as drinking, irrigation, industrial processes, or any other application requiring a water supply.
Built-In Check Valve:
Many deep well pumps have a built-in check valve at the discharge outlet. The check valve prevents water from flowing back down the pipe into the well when the pump is turned off. This ensures that the pump doesn't need to re-prime itself every time it starts, saving energy and reducing wear and tear.
Modern deep well pumps often come equipped with control mechanisms, such as pressure switches or flow sensors. These devices monitor water pressure or flow and automatically activate or deactivate the pump to maintain a consistent water supply and prevent overloading the pump.
A deep well pump operates by using centrifugal force generated by a rotating impeller to draw water from an underground source and deliver it to the surface. Its submersible design, motor-driven impeller, and efficient pressure conversion through components like diffusers and casings allow it to effectively lift water from considerable depths, providing a reliable and consistent water supply for various applications.